In democratic societies, government officials and elected representatives are usually concerned about societal risk in their judgements and recommendations in crises – which often places them in conflict with individuals who rightly perceive that their own risk might be small and acceptable to them wearing car seat-belts is an example. Eight relief agencies based in Gisenyi since , including MSF and MERLIN, were in a position to respond, making available rehydration facilities at transit centres and way stations along the route. The latter flows were much less hazardous to life, as they could be easily avoided, but were more destructive Fig. We’ll assume you’re ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. The lava lake level in January was not as high as in , and the surface was solidified. Emergency health measures include the provision of chlorinated water along evacuation routes and in refuge areas, and adequate medical cover for the treatment of cholera and other enteric diseases.

If it circulates in the economy somewhere then it is doing its job. Families were made to line up for hours to collect meticulously counted and packaged items, and the length of the procedure alone led to frustration, and ultimately to temptation and impersonation. Thousands of people spent the night in safety on Mt Goma, where an unparalleled view of the eruption was obtained. In January , the opening of fissures lower down and directed towards Goma may reflect a new evolution for the volcano with eruptions caused by rifting. Why humanitarian assistance is not a long-term solution in the OPT. Palestinian NGOs and the second Intifada. The commercial centre was destroyed by the main lava flow, which also over-ran the runway and put the airport out of action for days after the eruption.

Most people left the city by foot and their passage eastwards over the border to Rwanda was unimpeded.

Case study of a Volcanic eruption : Mt. Nyiragongo Pages 1 – 3 – Text Version | FlipHTML5

Eight relief agencies based in Gisenyi sinceincluding MSF and MERLIN, were in a position to respond, making available rehydration facilities at transit centres and way stations along the route. More specific measures to reduce vulnerability in a future eruption affecting Goma include organisational, logistical and engineering interventions to maintain and chlorinate drinking water and maintain power supplies in the city, and to stockpile and distribute emergency food rations.

If the beneficiaries tell us clearly, as they did, time and again in Goma, that what they needed was cash, why did aid agencies persist in giving them goods? But perhaps the aid community could be radical and say that people, especially adults, have a right to misuse their cash. The importance of this is not sufficiently recognised in parts of the international community and needs to be reinforced as an integral aspect of contingency planning.


Why did aid agencies ignore all their rhetoric about responding to the needs of people, and just give what they thought the people needed, not what they said they wanted? Access in and out of the city is relatively free-moving using the single main roads out to the east and west, but these could easily become congested during an evacuation of the population except that they would mostly move on foot.

Human health and vulnerability in the Nyiragongo volcano crisis DR Congo Jun 2002

People who were unable to collect water from the piped system after the eruption would have taken water from the lake. For this major and crucial need, only cash would do. The GVO observed volcabo fumarolic activity in the old Shaheru crater and from new cracks in the inner walls of the Nyiragongo crater following the 7 October earthquake.

Many refugees failed to reach health facilities, and the relatively few health workers on the scene were overwhelmed. The economic activity which the programme revived, based on carpenters and builders, sent a buzz through the whole town and demonstrated clearly what a difference the reintroduction of wages made to the economy. In contrast, Nyramuragira volcano erupts on a much more frequent basis and a new eruption could occur any time in the near future. The main lava flow crossed part of the Goma airport runway and entered Lake Kivu, forming a new lava delta about m.

The name of Goma will be forever linked to the Rwandan genocide of and the huge humanitarian crisis that was provoked when the refugees fled for their lives across the border with Zaire now Congo and established camps volcxno the city – at Mugunga the largestKatale, Kibumba and Munigi.

Goma airport cannot be relied upon for the delivery of humanitarian supplies in a future eruption as it may be covered by a lava flow.


Case study of a Volcanic eruption : Mt. Nyiragongo

The humanitarian situation and response in the OPT. There is sufficient nyiratongo for a full-time post based in Goma, and the development of project proposals for work on the health aspects of the crisis:. It also caused methane gas http: The aid response As aid responses go, Goma was not badly served.

nyiragongo volcano case study

The risk of death and injury from the volcano has to be weighed against the risk from other causes of loss of life due to the vulnerability of the population to daily threats from violence, malnutrition and endemic infectious diseases. The eruption should therefore have a significant effect in aggravating poverty in some social strata, at least. ReliefWeb has been the leading online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises and disasters since For the local people, as Tazieff learned, the volcano was a resting place for the souls of their ancestors.


nyiragongo volcano case study

An adequate lead time for evacuation therefore includes a sufficient period of warning to allow the NGOs and international agencies to gear up for the emergency, which will be longer than the warning time volxano for the population to leave under an evacuation plan.

Nyirqgongo eruption had been preceded by a number of premonitory signs in the months and weeks beforehand, such as increased fracturing and fumarolic activity on the upper southern slopes of the volcano and an increasing level of seismicity, especially between 4 – 17 January. According to volcanologists, this eruption was triggered by tectonic spreading of the Kivu rift causing the ground to fracture and allow lava to flow from ground fissures out of the crater lava lake and possibly from a deeper conduit nearer Goma.

The spectre of a recurrence of epidemics of cholera and other enteric infections in an evacuation of the present population of the Goma area, whether in a volcanic crisis or for other reasons, such as conflict, continues to haunt relief workers, and has to be weighed in any risk assessment of a future eruption of Nyiragongo volcano.

The health risks of evacuating a population the size of Goma for weeks or months should also be evaluated for risk assessment purposes Appendix 2.

Mount Nyiragongo eruption case study – Document in A Level and IB Geography

In the most serious volcanic scenarios, there will be a need for the urgent evacuation of at least a large part of the population of Goma. Goma had been a tourist resort with hotels overlooking the lake. Volcanic risk management is untested in this socio-political context.

The humanitarian crisis is the major source of vulnerability to be addressed in volcanic risk management.

nyiragongo volcano case study

Developing micro-enterprise in refugee camps: As outlined already in this report, minimising loss of life also means planning and providing for the continuing supply of safe food and water to the population during their exodus, the period of relocation, which may last weeks or even months, and subsequent return to Goma and its nyiragonvo.

The findings could be updated as new information on the volcano was obtained from new scientific work and in the light of developments in volcanic activity.